Hydrogen

Hydrogen as a future energy source provides certain advantages: It is the most frequent occurring element in nature – most fixed stars consist largely of hydrogen – and is thus theoretically available without limitations.

Properties

At room temperature hydrogen is a colourless and inodorous gas, which is 14.4 times lighter than air. It is the element with the lowest density, hence it diffuses easily through porous partitions, but also through metals like platinum. Hydrogen as 1st element has the deepest melting and boiling temperature after helium and it usually appears in a two atom molecule form (H2). There are three natural isotopes: A normal hydrogen atom (isotope protium) consists of one proton and one electron. In contrast, heavy hydrogen (isotope deuterium) has an additional neutron and super heavy hydrogen (isotope tritium) has two additional neutrons. The occurence of deuterium in natural hydrogen lies at about 0.015 %. While pure hydrogen is not toxic for the human organism, heavy and super heavy hydrogen are considered as highly toxic.

Hydrogen atoms appear in bounded form within several compounds, for example in water or in organic compounds like hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, benzene), alcohols (methanol, ethanol), aldehydes, acids, fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Hydrogen atoms are frequently represented in human bodies and are involved in many important metabolic processes like the digestion.

Hydrogen molecules appear in two different chemical conditions, called ortho- and para-hydrogen. They vary in the orientation of their atomic spins. The spin indicates the angular momentum of the elementary particles of an atom. Ortho-hydrogen shows a parallel spin, while para-hydrogen has an anti-parallel spin. Para-hydrogen has a lower specific heat capacity than ortho-hydrogen. At ambient temperature ortho-hydrogen appears three times as often as para-hydrogen. A mixture of 25 % para- and 75 % ortho-hydrogen is called normal hydrogen (nH2). Below -200 °C there exists almost exclusively para-hydrogen. The mixture of para- and ortho-hydrogen are in a thermodynamical equilibrium. The conversion from one condition to the other is a slow process, which may last - without a catalytic converter - several days. It is possible to convert ortho- into para-hydrogen within several hours with the magnet caloric method, until a para-hydrogen concentration over 95% is reached.

In air hydrogen burns with a light blue flame into water:

2 H2 + O2 =>2 H2O H = 572 kJ/mol

Mixtures with oxygen or with chloric gas explode by ignition impetuously and are called oxyhydrogen gas mixtures. At the laboratory, the detection of hydrogen is carried out with the oxyhydrogen test. This test is also used to examine whether a gas contains a oxyhydrogen mixture or not. If a whistling bang resounds, it is oxyhydrogen. If a harmless and dull noise is produced, there is only pure hydrogen in the test tube. In combination with alkali metals or alkaline earth metals hydrogen builds hydrides due to exothermic reactions.

Production

For the production of hydrogen several different strategies are used frequently. As hydrogen exists in the nature only in bounded form, its extraction calls for primary energy. Worldwide about 500 billion standard cubic meters of hydrogen are converted per year. Thereof 40% accrue in the chemical industry as by-product, for example during the production of chlorine using the chlorine - alkali electrolysis or the crude oil refinery process. About 20% of the hydrogen is used for the production of energy.

By far the largest part of the produced hydrogen is derived from fossil energy sources, from the catalytic steam fission of methane (natural gas reformation), the partial oxidation of heavy oil (diesel) or the gasification of coal. During these production processes based on carbonaceous elements, CO2 is produced. The production of hydrogen with electrolysis of water, which was made electrically conductible with caustic soda solution or oil of vitriol, allows a regenerative emission free energy chain by the use of wind-, water-, or sun energy. In the same way hydrogen can be produced with a series of chemical reactions with water, emission free but with more expensive chemical processes, for example from the reaction of alkali metals and water. More hydrogen production processes are still in the research and development stage, like the autothermic reformation, the Kværner-method and the gasification of biomass or organic waste. At the same time, methods for hydrogen production through biological processes are also investigated.

Storage

Due to the low density of hydrogen, the storage with sufficient energy density displays technical and economic challenges. Usual methods are the storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen, cryogenic liquid hydrogen and hydrogen storage in chemical or physical connections.

Gaseous hydrogen is compressed from 200 bar to 900 bar high and as CGH2 (compressed gaseous hydrogen) stored in pressure vessels. There are 4 types of pressure vessels, starting from simple steel bottles to full composite cylinders (CFRP).

In order to achieve higher energy densities, hydrogen is liquefied and cryogenically stored  as LH2 (hydrogen liquid). Since the condensation of hydrogen at ambient pressure only occurs at -252.85 ° C, the effort for liquefaction is high and needs to be energetically optimized.

Unfortunately, a rumour has established in the past that hydrogen is not storable permanently. This applies only to the storage as cryogenic liquid hydrogen, because the LH2 vaporizes and needs to be blown off (Boil off). For decades, hydrogen has been stored in bundles (rack consisting of 12 gas bottles) and then stored permanently. Furthermore, hydrogen can be injected into the natural gas pipeline (taking into account the legally prescribed maximum percentage), like in the project W2H, to use the natural gas grid as storage system.

 

Application

The contemporary energy supply is mainly based on the use of limited available resources of fossil fuels, which consist of a series of short- and long–chain hydrocarbon compounds. The energy generation via the combustion of carbonaceous fossil substances in air, which has accompanied the technical development of mankind since the activation of fire, causes - conditional on the procedure - the generation of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and several other harmful substances like hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and soot. 

Inside internal combustion engines it is possible to burn hydrogen mostly ecologically compatible: no carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide or hydrocarbons are produced and the emission of nitrogen oxides can be kept low. If hydrogen is used in a fuel cell, it delivers in a “cold combustion” electrical energy without producing any harmful substances or noise. In order to make hydrogen industrially useable as an energy source for power generation in fuel cells, for power engines in fuel cells or in internal combustion engines, a series of economic and technical questions still needs to be solved first. 

Literature

Reviewed Publications:

Capabilities and Limitations of 3D-CFD Simulation of Anode Flow Fields of High-Pressure PEM Water Electrolysis

Authors: Haas, Christoph; Macherhammer, Marie-Gabrielle; Klopcic, Nejc; Trattner, Alexander

Abstract: In this work, single-phase (liquid water) and two-phase (liquid water and gaseous oxy-gen)3D-CFD flowanalysis of the anode of a high pressure PEM electrolysis cell was conducted.3D-CFD simulationmodels of the anode side porous transport layer of a PEM electrolyzer cell werecreated for the flow analysis. For the geometrical modelling of the PTL, two approaches wereused: (a) modelling the exact geometry and (b) modelling a simplified geometry using a porositymodel. Before conducting two-phase simulations, the model was validated using a single-phaseapproach. The Eulerian multiphase and the volume-of-fluid approaches were used for the two-phasemodelling and the results were compared. Furthermore, a small section of the PTL was isolated tofocus on the gas bubble flow and behaviour in more detail. The results showed plausible tendenciesregarding pressure drop, velocity distribution and gas volume fraction distribution. The simplifiedgeometry using the porous model could adequately replicate the results of the exact geometry modelwith a significant reduction in simulation time. The developed simulation model can be used forfurther investigations and gives insight into two-phase flow phenomena in the PTL. Additionally,the information obtained from simulation can aid the design and evaluation of new PTL structures.

Link: Link

Quasi-stationary UI-characteristic model of a PEM fuel cell–Evaluating the option of self-humidifying operation

Authors: Wallnöfer-OgrisEva; Pertl, Patrick; Trattner, Alexander

Abstract: This work presents a zero-dimensional PEM fuel cell UI-characteristic model created in MATLAB Simulink® for operation with dry or humidified air supply. It is parameterised and validated based on the results of stack operation by varying stack temperature (50–80 °C), gas pressure (1.0–2.4 bar) and air humidification (0.0–1.0). The model is based on physical and electrochemical correlations and expanded by empirically assumptions concerning the influence of the humidification and limiting current density on the performance. The UI-model is intended to be integrated into a comprehensive zero-emission powertrain model. Since non-humidified operation of PEM fuel cell systems provides benefits for mobile applications by reducing space demand and system complexity, the objective of the model is to relate performance to the operating conditions and underlying physical parameters. Results confirm the feasibility of a self-humidifying stack operation at high performance by optimal parameter setting.

Link: Link

Advanced Methods of Optimising Fuel Cells on System Testbed

Authors: Trattner, Alexander; Brandstätter, Stefan; Pertl, Patrick; Dehne, Thomas; Kügele, Christoph; Paulweber, Michael

Abstract: A clear transition from carbon-based energy sources and energy carriers towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is necessary in order to meet the climate goals set in the Climate Change Conference in Paris 2015. Hence, the consistent decarbonisation of all sectors of our economy is mandatory, e.g. in mobility and transport, for households and in industry. Electricity and hydrogen are the only two energy carriers that can be produced and used in an emission-free cycle. Particularly in mobility and road transport, battery electric vehicles for short range and fuel cells electric vehicles for long range and fast refuelling are offering the possibility for a complete decarbonisation. When high driving range is required, fuel cell vehicles achieve lower costs at high production volume compared to battery electric vehicles. Moreover, fuel cell vehicles feature significant advantages regarding rare resources and recycling. However, high improvement potentials especially concerning overall efficiency, costs, industrialisation, materials etc. are still existing.
As a starting point this paper provides an overview of the status of technology of fuel cells and hydrogen in mobility and road transport. Regarding efficiency analyses, the focus is put on a novel method for evaluating the fuel cell system efficiency using energy and exergy analyses. This innovative approach is based on sophisticated exergy analyses to determine efficiency potentials from fuel cell stack up to fuel cell system level including the auxiliaries - BoP components. In addition, the results are structured into physical, chemical and kinetic efficiency potentials. In this context examples for passenger car as well as for heavy duty applications are presented. As the thermal management of FC propulsion systems is decisive for enabling high efficiencies this method further allows detailed thermodynamic investigations for a single competent as well as for entire propulsion systems on a scientifically established basis. Furthermore, the well-to-wheel as well as life-cycle CO2 emissions of FCEVs in comparison to other powertrains are analysed. This comparison includes passenger cars, busses and trucks.

Link: Conference Link

Exergy as Criteria for Efficient Energy Systems

A Spatially Resolved Comparison of the Current Exergy Consumption, the Current Useful Exergy Demand and Renewable Exergy Potential

Authors: Christoph Sejkora, Lisa Kühberger, Fabian Radner, Alexander Trattner and Thomas Kienberger

Abstract: The energy transition from fossil‐based energy sources to renewable energy sources of an industrialized country is a big challenge and needs major systemic changes to the energy supply. Such changes require a holistic view of the energy system, which includes both renewable potentials and consumption. Thereby exergy, which describes the quality of energy, must also be considered. In this work, the determination and analysis of such a holistic view of a country are presented, using Austria as an example. The methodology enables the calculation of the spatially resolved current exergy consumption, the spatially resolved current useful exergy demand and the spatially resolved technical potential of renewable energy sources (RES). Top‐down and bottom‐up approaches are combined in order to increase accuracy. We found that, currently, Austria cannot self‐supply with exergy using only RES. Therefore, Austria should increase the efficiency of its energy system, since the overall exergy efficiency is only at 34%. The spatially resolved analysis shows that in Austria the exergy potential of RES is rather evenly distributed. In contrast, the exergy consumption is concentrated in urban and industrial areas. Therefore, the future energy infrastructure must compensate for these spatial discrepancies.

Link: doi:10.3390/en13040843

Development of Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell e-Snowmobiles

Authors: Patrick Pertl, Martin Aggarwal, Alexander Trattner, Walter Hinterberger, Nigel Foxhall

Abstract: In the highly innovative and holistic flagship project HySnow (Decarbonisation of Winter Tourism by Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell Snowmobiles), funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund, the decarbonization of winter tourism is being demonstrated. Within this project, two prototype e-snowmobiles have been developed including the adaption of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) system for the low temperature and high-performance targets and the integration of the drivetrain into the vehicle. In this paper the drivetrain development process of the prototype e-snowmobiles will be presented with the aim to derive specifications for the drivetrain components as PEM-FC system, hydrogen storage system, electric drive, battery and power electronics. Based on typical use cases for snowmobiles overall vehicle specifications and requirements are defined. Associated driving cycles are investigated and used as input for the development process. Subsequently, analyses regarding possible drivetrain topologies based on technical and economical vehicle requirements are carried out. In parallel, vehicle implementation concepts based on standardized development processes are performed. The development and the design process are verified by verification and optimization loops. The results define technical specifications of the PEM-FC, the battery along with the required hydrogen tank; to give an optimum concerning required drivetrain efficiency, and hence driving range as well as vehicle space and weight. It is expected that the hydrogen powered e-snowmobiles with high power, drivability, driving fun, and the lack of noise emission, pollutants, and GHG will convince the users of the concept benefits.

 

Link: SAE Mobilus

A novel approach for dynamic gas conditioning for PEMFC stack testing

Authors: Janos Kancsar, Michael Striednig, David Aldrian, Alexander Trattner, Manfred Klell, Christoph Kügele, Stefan Jakubek

Abstract: The air supply to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack is crucial for the performance of a PEMFC system. To enable modular and transient testing of the stack during development, a novel dynamic gas conditioning system is presented. To meet the requirements of transient stack testing, different hardware concepts for the testbed are evaluated and an experimental setup is realised. The thermodynamic states of this system are coupled through various relations and represent a nonlinear multivariate control problem. For controller design a dynamic nonlinear model of the system is derived and parameterised with measurements from the testbed. To decouple the system and achieve a good transient response the model-based nonlinear control concept of exact inputoutput linearisation is applied. Based on the decoupled system, a Two-Degree-of-Freedom (2DoF) controller is designed. The application of this nonlinear control concept on the realised hardware setup shows that accurate trajectory tracking during dynamic set point changes is ensured. Experimental results are presented to validate the control performance.

Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.09.076

Modular Concept of a Cost-Effective and Efficient On-Site Hydrogen Production Solution

Authors: Markus Sartory, Markus Justl, Patrick Salman, Alexander Trattner, Manfred Klell

Abstract: Hydrogen as carbon-free energy carrier, produced from renewable sources like wind, solar or hydro power, is a promising option to overcome the impacts of the anthropogenic climate change. Recently, great advances regarding the early market introduction of FCVs have been achieved. As the availability of hydrogen refueling stations is highly limited, a modular, scalable and highly efficient hydrogen supply infrastructure concept is presented in this paper. The focus lies on cost-effectiveness and flexibility for the utilization in different applications and for growing markets. Based on the analysis of different use cases, the requirements for the newly developed concept are elaborated. The modular system design, utilizing a standardized high pressure PEM electrolysis module, allows a scalable hydrogen production of up to several hundred kilograms per day. The high pressure electrolyzer produces hydrogen at 35 MPa without mechanical compression and offers the following benefits: highest system efficiencies, dynamic operational behavior, good partial load behavior, low maintenance efforts and highest hydrogen qualities. Refueling processes at both standardized filling pressures, 35 MPa and 70 MPa, can be realized. A major advantage of the modular concept is the capability of a subsequent extension in order to adapt the infrastructure to growing demands. The developed concept represents an important factor for the market penetration of hydrogen technologies as the utilization of a standardized electrolysis module will lead to significant cost reductions as of increasing production figures. Three implementation concepts with different hydrogen capacities are presented: a small-sized infrastructure for home refueling with 1.5 kg/d, a medium-sized infrastructure for industrial utilization with up to 50 kg/d and a large-sized infrastructure with more than 100 kg/d.

Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.09.076

Hydrogen-Powered Fuel Cell Range Extender Vehicle - Long Driving Range with Zero-Emissions

Authors: Patrick Salman, Eva Wallnöfer-Ogris, Markus Sartory, Alexander Trattner, Manfred Knell

Abstract: The continuous increasingly stringent regulations for CO2 fleet targets request the introduction of zero-emission solutions in the near future. Moreover, additional customer benefits have to be generated in order to increase customer acceptance of zero-emission technologies. Actually high costs, reduced driving ranges and lack of infrastructures are some aggregative facts for end-customer acceptance thus also for a broad market launch. Plug-in hybrids as intermediate step towards zero-emission vehicles are meanwhile in series production with partly “zero-emission” operation mode and are well accepted by customers. The project partners HyCentA Research GmbH, Magna Steyr Engineering AG & Co KG, Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH and the Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology, have developed a hydrogen-powered zero-emission vehicle within a national funded research project. The combustion engine of an existing range extender shuttle van was substituted by a 25 kW proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system. In addition, the battery capacity was reduced due to weight, size and costs reasons. Approaches for the complete vehicle integration of the fuel cell range extender and the 70 MPa hydrogen storage system are presented. The high voltage architecture was newly developed and the thermal management has been re-designed. A two circuit coolant system fulfills the wide range of component demands with the possibility of fuel cell waste heat usage for cabin heating. Influences of the operation strategy on the energy and cost efficiency of the vehicle are shown and the optimization potentials will be outlined. The adaptive energy management algorithm and its influence on the fuel efficiency and driving range will be presented. Overall, the vehicle setup combines the advantages of the battery and the fuel cell technology to compensate shortcomings like refueling duration, driving range and dynamic operation.

Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.09.076

Theoretical and experimental analysis of an asymmetric high pressure PEM water electrolyser up to 155 bar

Authors: Sartory, Markus; Wallnöfer-Ogris, Eva; Salman, Patrick; Fellinger, Thomas; Justl, Markus; Trattner, Alexander; Klell, Manfred

Abstract: The continuous increasingly stringent regulations for CO2 fleet targets request the introduction of zero-emission solutions in the near future. Moreover, additional customer benefits have to be generated in order to increase customer acceptance of zero-emission technologies. Actually high costs, reduced driving ranges and lack of infrastructures are some aggregative facts for end-customer acceptance thus also for a broad market launch. Plug-in hybrids as intermediate step towards zero-emission vehicles are meanwhile in series production with partly “zero-emission” operation mode and are well accepted by customers. The project partners HyCentA Research GmbH, Magna Steyr Engineering AG & Co KG, Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH and the Vienna University of Technology, Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology, have developed a hydrogen-powered zero-emission vehicle within a national funded research project. The combustion engine of an existing range extender shuttle van was substituted by a 25 kW proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system. In addition, the battery capacity was reduced due to weight, size and costs reasons. Approaches for the complete vehicle integration of the fuel cell range extender and the 70 MPa hydrogen storage system are presented. The high voltage architecture was newly developed and the thermal management has been re-designed. A two circuit coolant system fulfills the wide range of component demands with the possibility of fuel cell waste heat usage for cabin heating. Influences of the operation strategy on the energy and cost efficiency of the vehicle are shown and the optimization potentials will be outlined. The adaptive energy management algorithm and its influence on the fuel efficiency and driving range will be presented. Overall, the vehicle setup combines the advantages of the battery and the fuel cell technology to compensate shortcomings like refueling duration, driving range and dynamic operation.

Link: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.10.112

Highly Integrated Fuel Cell Analysis Infrastructure for Advanced Research Topics

Authors: Stefan Brandstätter, Michael Striednig, David Aldrian, Alexander Trattner, Manfred Klell

Abstract: The limitation of global warming to less than 2 °C till the end of the century is regarded as the main challenge of our time. In order to meet COP21 objectives, a clear transition from carbon-based energy sources towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is mandatory. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) allow an energy-efficient, resource-efficient and emission-free conversion of regenerative produced hydrogen. For these reasons fuel cell technologies emerge in stationary, mobile and logistic applications with acceptable cruising ranges as well as short refueling times. In order to perform applied research in the area of PEMFC systems, a highly integrated fuel cell analysis infrastructure for systems up to 150 kW electric power was developed and established within a cooperative research project by HyCentA Research GmbH and AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria. A novel open testing facility with hardware in the loop (HiL) capability is presented. Vehicle, driver and driving cycle as well as powertrain components like battery, electric engine, transmission and different balance of plant (BoP) components can be simulated in real time. Ambient conditions and media supply temperatures can be adjusted dynamically in the range of –40 °C to 85 °C. Moreover, cathode air humidity can be varied in the range of 5 % to 95 %. The test bed allows research and development on topics from energy management to thermal management, from complete vehicle to sub-system control and calibration, from vehicle integration to the investigation of dynamics, cold start and lifetime.

Link: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.10.112

Fuel cell range extended electric vehicle FCREEV long driving ranges without emissions

Authors: Mueller, Helfried; Bernt, Axel-Oscar; Salman, Patrick; Trattner, Alexander;

Abstract: The limitation of global warming to less than 2 °C till the end of the century is regarded as the main challenge of our time. In order to meet COP21 objectives, a clear transition from carbon-based energy sources towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is mandatory. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) allow an energy-efficient, resource-efficient and emission-free conversion of regenerative produced hydrogen. For these reasons fuel cell technologies emerge in stationary, mobile and logistic applications with acceptable cruising ranges as well as short refueling times. In order to perform applied research in the area of PEMFC systems, a highly integrated fuel cell analysis infrastructure for systems up to 150 kW electric power was developed and established within a cooperative research project by HyCentA Research GmbH and AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria. A novel open testing facility with hardware in the loop (HiL) capability is presented. Vehicle, driver and driving cycle as well as powertrain components like battery, electric engine, transmission and different balance of plant (BoP) components can be simulated in real time. Ambient conditions and media supply temperatures can be adjusted dynamically in the range of –40 °C to 85 °C. Moreover, cathode air humidity can be varied in the range of 5 % to 95 %. The test bed allows research and development on topics from energy management to thermal management, from complete vehicle to sub-system control and calibration, from vehicle integration to the investigation of dynamics, cold start and lifetime.

Link: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.10.112

Thermodynamic real gas analysis of a tank filling process

Authors: Striednig, Michael; Brandstätter, Stefan; Sartory, Markus; Klell, Manfred

Abstract: A zero-dimensional thermodynamic real gas simulation model for a tank filling process with hydrogen is presented in this paper. Ideal gas and real gas simulations are compared and the entropy balance of the filling process is formulated. Calculated results are validated for a type I tank (steel vessel) with measurements. The simulation is used to accurately predict the maximum gas temperature during the refueling of pressurized gaseous hydrogen storages, which must not exceed 85 °C according to international standards. The influences of ambient temperature, initial pressure and pressure ramp rate on the resulting hydrogen gas temperature in the tank are investigated. In experiments, the effect of pressure pulses applied in practice on the resulting gas temperature is investigated as is the influence of the Joule–Thomson effect of hydrogen and methane. Finally simulations and experimental results are used to develop a refueling protocol for hydrogen powered industrial trucks, in operation at Europe's first indoor hydrogen filling station in Linz, Austria.Authors: Striednig, Michael; Brandstätter, Stefan; Sartory, Markus; Klell, Manfred

Abstract: A zero-dimensional thermodynamic real gas simulation model for a tank filling process with hydrogen is presented in this paper. Ideal gas and real gas simulations are compared and the entropy balance of the filling process is formulated. Calculated results are validated for a type I tank (steel vessel) with measurements. The simulation is used to accurately predict the maximum gas temperature during the refueling of pressurized gaseous hydrogen storages, which must not exceed 85 °C according to international standards. The influences of ambient temperature, initial pressure and pressure ramp rate on the resulting hydrogen gas temperature in the tank are investigated. In experiments, the effect of pressure pulses applied in practice on the resulting gas temperature is investigated as is the influence of the Joule–Thomson effect of hydrogen and methane. Finally simulations and experimental results are used to develop a refueling protocol for hydrogen powered industrial trucks, in operation at Europe's first indoor hydrogen filling station in Linz, Austria.

Link: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.03.028

Specialist books:

Wasserstoff in der Fahrzeugtechnik

Erzeugung, Speicherung, Anwendung

Abstract: This book provides a general overview of the different aspects of properties, production, storage and application of hydrogen. It focuses on the thermodynamics of hydrogen and its application in automotive engineering and energy technology. With reference to research projects at the TU Graz and the HyCentA, Hydrogen Center Austria, the current state of the art is presented. The sections on electrolysis to produce hydrogen from green electricity and on fuel cells to generate electricity for electric drives have been updated and supplemented.

Authors: Klell, Manfred; Eichlseder, Helmut; Trattner, Alexander

ISBN: 365820446X

Links:

H2-Stations